Greek History

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 Random IDs from the midterm

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hannahs



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Join date : 2010-12-17

PostSubject: Random IDs from the midterm   Fri Dec 17, 2010 10:24 am

1. Delphi: oracle of Apollo at Delphi; charged fee for prophetic advice, guidance, sanction; priestess’ (Pythia’s) utterances translated by “interpreters”; Panhellenic institution/sanctuary/temple; visited by tyrants, foreign kings, aristocratic leaders -> storehouse of information about political conditions across the Mediterranean world; would not give Spartans any advice saying that they must “first free Athens”, which led King Cleomenes to overthrow the tyrant Hippias in 510; hosted athletic competition in honor of Apollo every four years

2. Deiokes: 1st king of Media; law giver, people came to him from all around to be judged; when he quit, chaos ensued so people asked him to be king; ultimate insider, set apart, people didn’t get to see him

3. Draco: codified Athenian law around 620 B.C.; best known laws concern homicide, punishment = death or exile (if unintentional), prosecuted by next of kin before magistrates -> state is arbiter of justice, not family or kin; developed authority of the state at expense of magistrates and oikos; severe laws, often had death penalty for minor offenses

4. Cyrus: king of Persia; founded Persian Empire; ruled 559-530 B.C.; son of Median princess and Persian noble; revolted against Media and made it Persia’s 1st satrapy/province; conquered Lydian king Croesus in 546 thus bringing Greeks of Asia Minor under Persian rule; conquered all of Western Asia; died in battle against Massagetai (sp?)

5. Panhellenism: “all Greek”; common Greek culture among peoples spread around Mediterranean; involving all peoples in the Greek world; common religious sanctuaries, festivals, ritual, heritage, language, identity; institutions – Olympian games, oracle of Zeus at Dodona and of Apollo at Delphi, shrine of Zeus and Hera at Olympia and of Apollo and Artemis at Delos; Panhellenic world created through colonization; culturally unified, easy exchange of ideas, artists, poets, thinkers; gatherings at Panhellenic sanctuaries, contests, rituals forge common Hellenic identity; brought together in peaceful celebration, channeled rivalries

6. Marathon: where Pisistratus landed with force of mercenary soldiers to take over Athens for the last time; in Northern Attica; where Persians landed in 490 in Darius’ invasion of Greece after destroying Eretria; Athenian forces and Plataean allies met Persians on battlefield without Spartans; Athens wan despite being outnumbered about 2 to 1, hoplites were better armed, used speed and surprise, Persians had cavalry, archers, and skirmishing troops; 192 free Athenian men died; military prestige and focus in Athens, strategia = outlet for ambitious men

7. Indo-European: 1st Greek speakers; great, lengthy, ancient migration of peoples; possibly originated in vast steppes north of Caspian and Black seas, spread across Europe and Asia, Ireland to Chinese Turkestan; linguistic evidence in similarities among ancient Greek, Sanskrit, Latin, Russian, Germanic, Slavic languages; common linguistic ancestor = “Proto-Indo-European”

8. Identify 2 features of Greek tyranny / Tyrants
i. usually of noble birth (not necessarily of top-ranked families) and distinguished by personal achievements, but lacked legitimacy of old basileus (ex: Cypselus of Corinth)
ii. “age of tyrants” lasted from 670-500 BC; dictator/strongman-like, viewed more favorably by their nonaristocratic contemporaries, not seen as despotic or evil until later; kept aristocracy in check and brought stability
9. Draco:

10. Oikos: household or family (includes family property); in Dark Ages, was smallest social unit, center of person’s existence, every member preoccupied with its preservation, economic well-being, and social standing; patriarchal by custom and later by law; patrilineal; important part of social stucture, individual is defined by/ limited by oikos; part of lager pool of kin-like associations; lost leagal and cultural importance in the Archaic age, though still very significant

11. Basileus: king or chief; hereditary leaders of the new Greek communities of the Dark Ages; title of warrior leaders in Homer; great authority and stature, but limited power, hierarchy among basileis; waned in Archaic age, though the spirit of the role of basileus was still respected and carried on through the heads of new gvt systems

12. Agora: “place of gathering”; assembly of people; public space, marketplace, civic center of polis; center of social network

13. Ionians / Dorians: pg 38

14. Identify 2 significant features of Greek history / society / culture that came as a surprise to you (be specific):
i. Spartan women had more freedom relative to almost all other Greek women, had a lot of power in terms of land ownership, inheritance, reign over household
ii.
15. Suppliant:

16. Identify 3 specific characteristics of Herodotus’ conception of history or methods of working:
i.
ii.
17. Lycurgus: founded Spartan law system, mysterious figure, like Solon did not take power

18. mêtropolis / oikistês:

19. Boulê: council of 500 representatives, randomly selected, 50 reps from each of 10 tribes, each tribe took turns being in charge of preparing business for the assembly every 35 days

20. Pisistratus: tyrant of Athens, three rounds of rule broken up by being driven out of city/pwr twice

21. Helot: conquered people who worked as serfs on what was one their own land; Spartan state depended on helots from Laconia and Messenia; helots vastly outnumbered Spartans and there was a constant threat/fear of rebellion
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