Greek History

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PostSubject: Week 10 IDs   Week 10 IDs I_icon_minitimeThu Dec 16, 2010 6:42 pm

Sophocles – Greek tragedian most famous for Antigone and Oedipus; playwright who won the most dramatic competitions (about 24 out of 30) performed during religious festivals for Dionysus

Antigone – Daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta; play’s tragic heroine. Wants to bury Polynices’s body against Creon’s decree to respect ancient traditions of family honor/right to proper burial; wants to see real justice done, not the one proclaimed by Creon. Is sentenced to being buried alive in a cave and kills herself.

Ismene – Antigone’s sister, gets asked to help bury Polynices but refuses in fear of death penalty. Offers to share blame with Antigone, but she refuses. Creon decides to spare her.

Creon – Antigone’s uncle, took over Thebes following Oedipus’s fall. Proclaims that Eteocles should get hero’s funeral, Polynices be left to worms and vultures (harshest punishment of all time). After arguing with Tiresias, the chorus convinces him to free Antigone and bury Polynices, but it’s too late, they’ve both killed themselves. Creon understands that his own actions have caused these events, saying that he acted against the gods and lost his wife and son.

Haemon – Engaged to Antigone and son of Creon. At first supports Creon’s decision, but then tries to persuade him to spare her. They fight, Haemon vows never to see Creon again. After he finds Antigone’s dead body, he stabs himself to death.

Tiresias – Blind prophet, warns Creon to bury Polynices immediately. Creon accuses him of being corrupt, and answers that if Creon doesn’t, he will lose his son, Greece will hate him and the gods won’t accept Thebes’s sacrifices.

Eurydice – Creon’s wife. Upon finding out that Haemon has killed himself, takes her own life.

Eteocles and Polynices – Brothers of Antigone and Ismene. Prior to the beginning of the play, fought in civil war against each other for the throne and died in the process. Creon decides that Eteocles will be honored and Polynices will be shamed.

Agis – Son of Archidamus (king of the Spartans); invaded Attica. When heard of occupation of Pylos, marched army back to Sparta

Eurymedon and Sophocles – remaining Athenian generals sent to Sicily; instructed to assist Corcyraeans in the city. Then sail to Corcyra to quell revolution where they arrested the rebels. When the prisoners escaped, they were killed, and responsibility fell on the generals.

Demosthenes – Athenian general; fleet is blown off course to Pylos, where he urged bored soldiers to fortify Pylos. Before Peloponnesian fleet arrived at Pylos, sent for help to Eurymedon and other Athenians. Leads the defense of Pylos against Spartan attack. Cleon chooses him to be his partner in his 20-day victory plan. Uses surprise tactics and attacking Spartans from a distance and all sides, which leads to victory.

Brasidas – Spartan commander who distinguishes himself for bravery in siege of Pylos, but is wounded and faints.
Cleon – After Athenian victory at Pylos, Spartans called for peace. Demagogue Cleon refused offer of peace and wanted to “grasp for something more.” When Athenians regret that decision, they blame Cleon, who in turn blames Nicias for not attacking Spartans at Sphacteria. When Nicias leaves his post, Athenian People insist Cleon take over; he boasts that he can win victory in twenty days. With Demosthenes’s help, he fulfills his promise.

Nicias – Athenian General blamed by Cleon (who hated him) for not accepting the peace. After these attacks, he withdraws from command. Was important in the Peloponnesian war effort both in frustrating the Athenians in a number of situations and in voting for the continuation of the war.

Hermocrates – Syracusan who argued in favor of Sicily’s unification into one nation to make them stronger against the invading Athenians, the common enemy to all Sicilians. Regardless of risk of invasion, peace itself is still worth seeking and unification is the best way to achieve that.

Trygaeus – Character in Aristophanes’s Peace; Middle-aged Athenian farmer brings an end to the Peloponnesian War by freeing Peace, Festival and Harvest from prison in the heavens.

Aristophanes – Comic playwright of Ancient Greece; plays were bitingly satirical and advocated peace, as seen in Peace and Lysistrata.
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